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Batch chemical reactor

G.Patton

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Introduction

The Batch Reactor is the generic term for a type of vessel widely used in the chemical industries. Its name is something of a misnomer since vessels of this type are used for a variety of process operations such as solids dissolution, product mixing, chemical reactions, batch distillation, crystallization, liquid/liquid extraction and polymerization. In this topic, we will consider only the batch reactor, since this type of reactor is used for the production of psychoactive substances.

A typical batch reactor consists of a storage tank with an agitator and integral heating/cooling system. These vessels may vary in size from less than 1 liter to more than 15 000 liters. They are usually fabricated in steel, stainless steel, glass-lined steel, glass or exotic alloy. Liquids and solids are usually charged via connections in the top cover of the reactor. Vapors and gases also discharge through connections in the top or through a condenser. Liquids are typically discharged out of the bottom. The advantages of the batch reactor lie with its versatility. A single vessel can carry out a sequence of different operations without the need to break containment. This is particularly useful when processing toxic or highly potent compounds.

Batch reactors are used for most of the reactions carried out in a laboratory. The reactants are placed in a test-tube, flask or beaker. They are mixed together, often heated for the reaction to take place, and are then cooled. The products are poured out and, if necessary, purified. This procedure is also carried out in industry, the key difference being one of size of reactor and the quantities of reactants.
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A batch reactor schemes

Application in drug manufacturing

Any production of narcotic and potent substances requires synthesis. For small volumes, it is sufficient to use small reaction vessels (pear-shaped or small two-/three-necked flasks). When scaling up production, the chemist faces a number of problems, such as increasing the volume of the reaction mass, improving heat transfer and mixing, convenient loading / unloading of reagents, mixing control and so on. All these problems are solved by the selection and purchase of a suitable Batch reactor. In this topic, I've tried to explain as simply as possible what equipment it is, how to use it, maintain it and choose to buy.

Components of typical batch reactor

Batch reactors consist of different parts which perform different functions:

Tank

The tank is the main part of the chemical reactor, where all the chemical reactions take place. It is the place where all the reactants meet and mix with other types of reactants to produce the final product.
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Stirrer
This is the part of the continuous stirred tank reactor, which is responsible for storing and homogeneously mixing all the reactants.
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Heat Exchanger
You will depend on the heat exchanger to provide the necessary heat or cool for the chemical reactions to occur. One of the most intractable problems of scale up is that of temperature control. Good temperature control in a batch reactor needs to take account of two factors. First, the temperature controller needs to be able to hold the bulk product temperature at the desired value and respond to changes in the heating or cooling load in a timely manner. Second, the wall temperature in the reactor needs to be maintained at levels that do not adversely affect the product. A typical heating and cooling system for a conventional batch reactor is shown in the figure below. The reactor body is surrounded by an outer jacket through which heat transfer fluid is circulated. On larger vessels, multiple injection points are used to improve distribution of the heat transfer fluid within the jacket.
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Inlet and Outlet pipes
You will use the inlet pipes to add more reactants into the tank, while the outlet pipes release the final product.
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Control System
You will use the control system to configure, control and monitor rotation speed, temperature, time of the reactions within the chemical reactors.

Additional equipment
Additional equipment consists of a reflux condenser, additional funnel, adapters, gas pipes, a collecting flask, and so on.
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How do batch reactors work

Step One: Preparation Stage

You will begin the whole process by preparing the machine and setting it up according to the product specifications. Apart from that, you will also prepare all the reactants that you would like to mix using the batch reactor. As soon as you complete the preparation process, you will introduce all the reactants into the reactor though the inlet and additional funnel (optional).

Step Two: Mixing Stage
Here, the stirrer will spring into action once the reactants enter the tank of the batch reactor. Apart from that, the heat exchanger will provide the necessary heat or cool that the reaction process requires, completing the reaction. The process will continue with all the factors remaining constant as the reactants mix and form homogeneous mixtures. It will take a considerable amount of time, which usually varies according to the type of reactants.

Step Three: Releasing the product mixture
Finally, you will allow the machine to release the product mixture as soon as the mixing process is complete. You will note that the machine maintains the properties that it had during the inlet process as well as the outlet process.
Video Manual

What are the benefits of using the Batch reactor?
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There are quite a number of benefits that you will enjoy by using this. Here are some of the advantages of using a Batch reactor.
  • Easy to use
You will have an easy time when it comes to controlling and operating the chemical reactor. It has a simple design and a control system that is friendly to the user requirements.

  • Versatile
You can also mix a wide range of chemicals to make different psychoactive substances.

  • High durability levels
You will also use the chemical reactors for a very long time as they are highly durable. Most of them have materials with a very high tensile strength that can withstand the pressure from the chemical reactions.

  • Proper control of variables
You will also have perfect control of all the reaction variables thanks to the chemical reactors. It allows you to control the pressure and temperature of the chemical reactors better.


How to maintain a Batch reactor
You must maintain your chemical reactors regularly to ensure that they are in proper working conditions. This will help in increasing the longevity or service life as well as performance of the chemical reactors. You can maintain the chemical reactors through proper cleaning of the system to get rid of the residues on the device. Apart from that, you will have to lubricate all the moving parts on the chemical reactors to prevent damage. You must also conduct regular inspection on the machine to identify the parts that require replacements. In that case, you will have to remove and replace the parts of the chemical reactors if the need arises. It is important to have a proper schedule for proper maintenance of the chemical reactors. You can use a prediction software which will monitor the performance of the chemical reactors and inform you of any problems.
Which specifications do you look at before you purchase the Batch Reactor?
There are particular operation variables that you need to look at when you are choosing the chemical reactors. Here are the main operational variables that you will pay very close attention to. You will make your choice by looking at the type of chemical reactors capable of handling the application requirements.
Model of the Chemical Reactor

You should consider using the most trusted models of chemical reactors in the industry. In this case, you should consult fellow drug manufacturers, who will refer you to specific models that function well.



Residence Time
You should know the period that particular reactants will take while in the chemical reactors. This will help in purchasing the perfect chemical reactor that can withstand the reaction time between different reactants. Usually, drug manufacturing use glass reactors.

Volume or Capacity

Most of the chemical reactor is very big in size and accommodate different volumes of reactants. You will consider the quantity of reactants you will be mixing in the reaction before making a choice.
Pressure and Temperature Requirements
Here, you will consider the maximum and minimum temperature requirements of your synthesis.


Which factors affect the cost of chemical reactors?

As soon as you have the idea of purchasing a chemical reactor, you must have a proper budget. When budgeting for chemical reactors, you must look at specific factors such as:
  1. Quality of the Chemical Reactors. Here, the higher the quality of the chemical reactors, the more you will pay for the chemical reactors.
  2. Capacity of the Chemical Reactors. In this case, you will pay a higher price for the chemical reactors that can handle greater capacities or volumes.
Generally, chemical reactors cost between 500 and 250 000 US Dollars to purchase.

Suppliers

There are numerous companies, which produce and sell Batch reactors. Your choice depends on your budget, time for shipping to your location and import rules. Here represented some suppliers with different range of prices for 100 L glass Batch Reactor. Prices are valid for 02.2022.
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Lab1st Scientific - https://www.lab1st.com
Shanghai Yuanhuai Industrial Co., Ltd - https://www.pharmasources.com
Lab Society - https://labsociety.com
Across International - https://www.acrossinternational.com
Nantong Purui Technical Instrument Co., Ltd - http://purui.sn-led.com/
 
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Chernobyl1932

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with a reactor like this, can I carry out the entire process of mdma synthesis? In that case, only the products would be missing, right?
 

Beeber

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Request a method for distillation and reflux reactor.
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Khaafii

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You can't carry out entire synthesis of MDMA in this reactor. Several parts only.

what? I don't understand you.
G.PattonWhat parts?

I am looking soon to start something. How far will i come with synthesis from PMK glycidate to PMK. And from PMK to MDMA? what parts can i use this reactor for?
 

G.Patton

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What parts?

I am looking soon to start something. How far will i come with synthesis from PMK glycidate to PMK. And from PMK to MDMA? what parts can i use this reactor for?
KHaafiiFirstly, learn synthesis methods in the forum. You don't need to batch reactor if you don't have any synthesis skills. You have to start from a small-scale load in a round bottom flask.
 
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phantomwriter

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Hello brothers. Did anybody buy batch reactor from lab1ist, Shanghai Yuanhuai Industrial Co., Ltd, Nantong Purui Technical Instrument Co., Ltd ? What are your reviews?
 

Mo0odi

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Can I make amphetamine p2np how do I cool the amphetamine reaction
 

Gale

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Having some issues, what is this? Just an example photo I found.. Thanks
 

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Gale

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I'm not sure what these round bottom attachments are..and is that condenser OK for al/hg reduction? You see how the condesnor is connected by some kind of curved thing with another round bottom below it with the tap on it.. What is all this stuff, it doesn't seem right. I'm guess the top left round bottom is some kind of addition?
 

G.Patton

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I'm not sure what these round bottom attachments are..and is that condenser OK for al/hg reduction?
GaleAl/Hg Amphetamine synthesis isn't scalable more than ~100 g load. Are you sure that you want to buy batch reactor?
ou see how the condesnor is connected by some kind of curved thing with another round bottom below it with the tap on it..
It is okay for a batch reactor. This flask is need to collect evaporated solvent. Equipment scheme is the same as in a rotovap machine.
I'm guess the top left round bottom is some kind of addition?
This flask, probably, sort of drip funnel but without hose. I think you have to install appropriate hose by yourself.
 

Gale

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Al/Hg Amphetamine synthesis isn't scalable more than ~100 g load.
G.Patton
I am focused on mainly al/hg MDMA synthesis and scaled up to 1.1 kg with good yields. Temperature rises to around 80c dumping wholesale without cooling. I assume I will be able to control this with the addition round bottom or will should just use a normal constant pressure addition ?

Working on the boro reduction, haven't had a chance to give it a go but I think it would be more suitable for my needs. Would be mid to run a more cool reaction.
 
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