Mescaline Guide: Sources, Synthesis, Extraction

Mescaline Guide: Sources, Synthesis, Extraction

Introduction

Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a substance of plant origin. It belongs to phenylethylamine group and entheogenic class of psychoactive substances. It has mostly psychedelic effects like LSD and, to some extent, psilocybin, however, one of mescaline distinctive effects is higher level of sociability. This substance is found in cacti genera Lophophora and Echinopsis (known before as trichocereus). The most common species of the above-mentioned cacti are Peyote, San Pedro, and Peruvian Torch. These species of plants have slow goth rate, they are most commonly found in southern parts of the USA, Mexico, Central and South America. Also, some acacia species can contain certain amounts of mescaline, for example, Acacia Berlandieri and Fernasiana, however, aside from mescaline they contain significantly higher concentrations of other psychoactive substances, Chronology of mescaline use goes back at least 5000 years, there is archaeological data evident of that. Initially, either fast-growing cacti San Pedro, which tower over mountainous desert shrubs in the Andes, or slow-growing creeping Peyote were consumed. 

Mescaline Hydrochloride

There are two common production ways of mescaline: Extraction way from plant sources and reduction of Beta-nitro-3,4,5-trimethoxystyrene synthesis (cas 6316-70-7), which can be produced from 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde.

Mescaline Plant Sources

Plant source

Amount of Mescaline

(% of dry weight)

Echinopsis lageniformis (Bolivian torch cactus, syns. Echinopsis scopulicola, Trichocereus bridgesii)

0.25-0.56; 0.85 under its synonym Echinopsis scopulicola

Leucostele terscheckii (syns Echinopsis terscheckii, Trichocereus terscheckii)

0.005 - 2.375

Peyote cactus (Lophophora williamsii)

0.01-5.5

Trichocereus macrogonus var. macrogonus (Peruvian torch, syns Echinopsis peruviana, Trichocereus peruvianus)

0.01-0.05; 0.24-0.81

Trichocereus macrogonus var. pachanoi (San Pedro cactus, syns Echinopsis pachanoi, Echinopsis santaensis, Trichocereus pachanoi)

0.23-4.7; 0.32 under its synonym Echinopsis santaensis

Trichocereus uyupampensis (syn. Echinopsis uyupampensis)

0.05

Mescaline Extraction

The simplest and the most affordable is an extraction way from San Pedro cactus (Echinopsis pachanoi) as a mescaline source. The San Pedro cactus contains a number of alkaloids, including the well-studied chemical mescaline (from 0.053% up to 4.7% of dry cactus weight), and also 3,4-dimethoxyphenethylamine, 3-Methoxytyramine, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenethylamine, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine, anhalonidine, anhalinine, hordenine, and tyramine.

You can read complete Mescaline Extraction From San Pedro Cactus tutorial here.

         

Mescaline Synthesis From Beta-nitro-3,4,5-trimethoxystyrene

A mescaline synthesis can be considered as a typical example of Beta-nitrostyrene reduction using LAH or NaBH4. By the other name it is  reduction of 3,4,5-trimethoxy­(2-nitrovinyl)benzene with lithium aluminum hydride or sodium borohydride. There are different names of this reaction but they mean one method. 

Beta-nitro-3,4,5-trimethoxystyrene can be obtained from from 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde. Both detailed and clear synthesis write ups can be found on BB Forum.

Beta-nitro-3,4,5-trimethoxystyrene Synthesis (cas 6316-70-7) From 3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzaldehyde

Beta-nitro-3,4,5-Trimethoxystyrene reduction With NaBH4/CuCl2 to Mescaline

[GALLERY=media, 54][/GALLERY]

Conclusion

In conclusion, mescaline extraction from the San Pedro cactus is identified as the simplest and most affordable method. Furthermore, the alternative synthesis route using Beta-nitro-3,4,5-trimethoxystyrene highlights the versatility of production methods. Whether derived from plants or synthesized through chemical processes, the exploration and application of mescaline are in a constant state of evolution, generating heightened scientific and cultural interest in this fascinating psychoactive compound.

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