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International Drug Control Conventions

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The three major international drug control treaties are mutually supportive and complementary. An important purpose of the first two treaties is to codify internationally applicable control measures in order to ensure the availability of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances for medical and scientific purposes, and to prevent their diversion into illicit channels. They also include general provisions on trafficking and drug abuse.

 
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Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 as amended by the 1972 Protocol
The 1961 Convention , which was expanded and strengthened by the 1972 Protocol, is considered a major achievement in international drug control because it consolidated all previous conventions and streamlined the international drug control machinery. The 1961 Convention establishes strict controls on the cultivation of opium poppy, coca bush, cannabis plant and their products, which, in the Convention, are described as "narcotic drugs" (although cocaine is a stimulant drug rather than one that induces sleep).

Control is exercised over 136 narcotic drugs. Yellow List - List of Narcotic Drugs Under International Control.
The Yellow List contains the full list of internationally controlled narcotic drugs under the 1961 Convention. The Yellow List also contains information regarding the synonyms and trade names of those substances, conversion factors for calculating the pure drug content of bases and salts.
 

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Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971


The 1971 Convention was adopted to limit the diversion and abuse of certain psychotropic substances, such as central nervous stimulants, sedative-hypnotics and hallucinogens, which had resulted in public health and social problems in some countries. The number of substances placed under control continues to increase, currently 144 psychotropic substances are controlled under the 1971 Convention.

Green List - List of Psychotropic Substances Under International Control
The Green List contains the four schedules of control for psychotropic substances under the 1971 Convention. The Green List also contains information regarding the synonyms and trade names of those substances, conversion factors for calculating the pure drug content of bases and salts as well as the import and export prohibitions and restrictions pursuant to Article 13 of the Convention.
 

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United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988

Legislation and Control Measures

The concerted and united efforts of Governments determined to establish measures to prevent the diversion of precursor and essential chemicals into the illicit manufacture of drugs led to the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988 (1988 Convention), and today the Convention enjoys near universal adherence. The 1988 Convention contains detailed provisions and requirements relating to the control of precursors. The general requirements are summarized in paragraph 1 of article 12:

" The parties shall take the measures they deem appropriate to prevent diversion of substances in Table I and Table II used for illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances, and shall co-operate with one another to this end."


Red List

The Red List is the list of precursors and chemicals frequently used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances under international control. It contains chemical names, synonyms and trade names known to INCB, as well as chemical abstract service (CAS) numbers and harmonized system (HS) codes for the chemicals listed in Table I and Table II of the 1988 Convention.

SUBSTANCES INCLUDED IN TABLE I
Acetic anhydride(acetic oxide)HS code: 2915.24 CAS number: 108-24-7
N-Acetylanthranilic acid(benzoic acid, 2-(acetylamino)-)HS code: 2924.23 CAS number: 89-52-1
4-Anilino-N-phenethylpiperidine (ANPP)(N-phenyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)piperidin-4-amine)HS code: 2933.39 CAS number: 21409-26-7
Ephedrine([R-(R*,S*)]-α-[1-(methylamino)ethyl]-benzenemethanol)HS code: 2939.41# CAS number: 299-42-3
Ergometrine(ergoline-8-carboxamide,9,10-didehydro-N-(2-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-6-methyl-,[8ß(S)])HS code: 2939.61 CAS number: 60-79-7
Ergotamine(ergotaman-3',6',18'-trione,12'-hydroxy-2'-methyl-5'-(phenylmethyl)-,(5α))HS code: 2939.62 CAS number: 113-15-5
Isosafrole(1,3-benzodioxole,5-(1-propenyl)-)HS code: 2932.91 CAS number: 120-58-1
Lysergic acid((8ß)-9,10-didehydro-6-methylergoline-8-carboxylic acid)HS code: 2939.63 CAS number: 82-58-6
3,4-MDP-2-P methylglycidate (*2)(2-oxiranecarboxylic acid, 3-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-methyl-,methyl ester)HS code: 2932.99 CAS number: 13605-48-6
3,4-MDP-2-P methylglycidic acid (*2)(2-oxiranecarboxylic acid, 3-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-methyl-)HS code: 2932.99 CAS number: 2167189-50-4
3,4-Methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone(2-propanone,1-[3,4(methylenedioxy)phenyl]-)HS code: 2932.92 CAS number: 4676-39-5
Methylalpha-phenylacetoacetate (MAPA) (*3)(methyl 3-oxo-2-phenylbutanoate)HS code: 2918.30 CAS number: 16648-44-5
Norephedrine(R*,S*)-α-(1-aminoethyl)benzenemethanolHS code: 2939.44# CAS number: 14838-15-4
N-Phenethyl-4-piperidone (NPP)(1-(2-phenylethyl)-piperidin-4-one)HS code: 2933.39 CAS number: 39742-60-4
Phenylacetic acid(benzeneacetic acid)HS code: 2916.34 CAS number: 103-82-2
1-Phenyl-2-propanone(1-phenyl-2-propanone)HS code: 2914.31 CAS number: 103-79-7
alpha-Phenylacetoacetamide(APAA) (*2)(benzeneacetamide, α-acetyl-)HS code: 2924.29 CAS number: 4433-77-6
alpha-Phenylacetoacetonitrile (APAAN)(3-oxo-2-phenylbutanenitrile)HS code: 2926.40 CAS number: 4468-48-8
Piperonal(1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxaldehyde)HS code: 2932.93 CAS number: 120-57-0
Potassium permanganate(permanganic acid (HMnO4), potassium salt)HS code: 2841.61 CAS number: 7722-64-7
Pseudoephedrine([S-(R*,R*)]-α-[1-(methylamino)ethyl]-benzenemethanol)HS code: 2939.42# CAS number: 90-82-4
Safrole(1,3-benzodioxole,5-(2-propenyl)-)HS code: 2932.94 CAS number: 94-59-7
The salts of the substances listed in this Table whenever the existence of such salts is possible.

The CAS numbers for the salts of the substances listed are different from those given. Therefore, a substance with a CAS number that does not appear in the list may nevertheless be a scheduled substance.

(*2)3,4-MDP-2-P methyl glycidic acid, its methyl ester, and APAA were included in Table 1 of the 1988 Convention effective 19 November2019.

(*3)MAPA was included in Table 1 of the 1988 Convention, effective 3 November 2020.

(#)
Since January 2017, the World Customs Organization’s Harmonized System (HS) Nomenclature includes new code numbers for pharmaceutical preparations containing ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and norephedrine, as follows:
3003.41 –Containing ephedrine or its salts
3003.42 –Containing pseudoephedrine (INN) or its salts
3003.43 –Containing norephedrine or its salts
(Note: subheading 3003 concerns medications in bulk)
3004.41 –Containing ephedrine or its salts
3004.42 –Containing pseudoephedrine (INN) or its salts
3004.43 –Containing norephedrine or its salts
(Note: subheading 3004 concerns retail medications)


SUBSTANCES INCLUDED IN TABLE II
Acetone(2-propanone)HS code: 2914.11 CAS number: 67-64-1
Anthranilic acid(2-aminobenzoic acid)HS code: 2922.43 CAS number: 118-92-3
Ethyl ether(1,1'-oxybis[ethane])HS code: 2909.11 CAS number: 60-29-7
Hydrochloric acid (*4)(hydrochloric acid)HS code: 2806.10 CAS number: 7647-01-0
Methyl ethyl ketone(2-butanone)HS code: 2914.12 CAS number: 78-93-3
Piperidine(piperidine)HS code: 2933.32 CAS number: 110-89-4
Sulphuric acid(*4)(sulfuric acid)HS code: 2807.00 CAS number: 7664-93-9
Toluene(benzene, methyl-)HS code: 2902.30 CAS number: 108-88-3
The salts of the substances listed in this Table whenever the existence of such salts is possible.

(*4) The salts of hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid are specifically excluded from Table II.
 
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