bigbadbear

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Is it possible to extract ephedrine with aqua Regia? and can you explain how?

thanks 🙂
 

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Hello, I've come across information online that suggests that L-ephedrine and D-pseudoephedrine are the primary alkaloids found in ephedra, along with some other trace alkaloids. I think I’ve figured how to extract hydrochloride ephedrine and hydrochloride pseudoephedrine from ephedra and separating the two.

Could you please advise if I were to proceed with further meth synthesis, using methods like iodine/red phosphorus, should I use hydrochloride L-ephedrine, hydrochloride D-pseudoephedrine, or a mixture of both? Does the L/D have an impact on meth synthesis? Thank you.:love::love::love:


I've encountered difficulty in distinguishing these concepts: ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, chiral L/D, optical rotation l/d, and I'm not sure how much they affect meth synthesis.:cry::cry::cry:
 

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Introduction

View attachment 3498 Ephedrine was found in the Chinese "Ma-huang" or Ephedra sinica Stapf plant, made from various species of ephedra, by Nagai in 1887. It has two chiral centers so that four configurationally isomeric ephedrines exist. The two naturally occurring ephedrines differ in the configuration of the secondary alcohol group.

There are two methods of Ephedrine extraction. First one was taken from German patent and allow getting Ephedrine hydrochloride with high purity grade. This method is suitable for laboratory manufacturing more than for kitchen home lab. Second one is simple extraction method with ethanol and naphtha, which give quite dirty free base of ephedrine. Nevertheless, simple method may be carried out at home garage and product may be purified with recrystallization as in first method.

Equipment and glassware:
  • 1000 mL x2; 250 ml x2 Beakers
  • 100 mL x5; Erlenmeyer flasks;
  • Glass rod;
  • Glass column (d = 2.5 cm or wider, l = 70 cm);
  • Cotton ball;
  • 500 mL round bottom flask;
  • Rotary evaporator;
  • 500 ml Separating funnel;
  • Conventional funnel;
  • Filter paper;
  • Hydrogen chloride gas production apparatus;
  • Büchner funnel and flask;
  • Water-jet aspirator;
  • Laboratory scale (0.1 — 100 g is suitable);
  • Spatula.
Reagents:
  • Ephedra sinica Stapf 100 g; View attachment 3499
  • Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) 50 g;
  • Distilled water, 150 mL;
  • Dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) ~1500 mL;
  • Diethyl ether 50 mL;
  • Hydrochloric acid 150 mL (HCl 0.5 N);
  • Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) 50 g;
  • Sodium hydroxide aq. solution (NaOH 1 N) ~100 mL;
  • Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) or magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) ~100 g;
  • Acetone 30 mL;
  • Methanol (MeOH) ~10 mL;
  • Activated charcoal (optional) ~1 g;
View attachment 3496

Soluble in H2O 47.62 g/L (25 ºC), alcohol, ether, chloroform, and oils;
Boiling Point: 255 °C at 760 mm Hg (free base);
Melting Point freebase: 37-39 ̊C;
Melting point HCI salt: 187-188 ̊C;
Molecular Weight: 165.236 g/mole;
Density: 1.124 g/cm3 (20 °C);
CAS Number: 299-42-3 (free base) and 50-98-6 (hydrochloride salt).


L-ephedrine hydrochloride from ephedra herb [50-98-6] C10H15NO HCl

Determination of content (optional):
5 g of ground ephedra herb are mixed with 2 g of sodium carbonate and 7 mL of water and left to stand at room temperature for 3 hours. The mixture is treated three times with 50 ml of dichloromethane and stirred for at least 2 hours each time. The extract is pipetted off in each case. The organic phase is evaporated under vacuum (at 40 °C to 1 ml). After adding 20 mL of diethyl ether, it is extracted four times with 20 mL of 0.5 N hydrochloric acid, each time.

The combined hydrochloric acid phases are washed twice with 20 ml of ether, each time. After neutralization with 1 N sodium hydroxide solution (pH 7.5-8), it is extracted three times with 40 ml of dichloromethane and concentrated. The residue is taken up in 10 ml of water, and 3 ml of 0.1 N sodium hydroxide solution and 10 ml of 0.1 N I2/KI solution are added. The solution is stirred with gentle warming for 30 minutes. It is then carefully acidified with diluted HCl and a few drops of starch solution are added. The excess iodine is titrated with 0.1 N sodium thiosulphate solution until the color changes from blue to colorless.

Extraction procedure:
1.
100 g of powdered ephedra herb is added to a solution of 50 g of sodium carbonate in 150 ml of water in a 1000 ml beaker, mixed with a glass rod and left to stand for at least 2 hours.

2. A glass column (d = 2.5 cm or wider, l = 70 cm) is filled one third with dichloromethane and then filled in portions with the drug pulp. The drug should settle in the column without any air bubbles. The drug is covered with a glass cotton ball. (Please note: do not press the column filling too tightly).

3. It is percolated by continuously adding 1000 ml of dichloromethane (about two drops/sec). The percolate is concentrated portionwise in a 500 mL round bottom flask under vacuum to a volume of 5 mL.

4. 30 mL of ether are added to the extract, and it is shaken out three times with 50 ml of 0.5 N hydrochloric acid each time.

5. The combined hydrochloric acid extracts are filtered into a 500 ml separating funnel through a funnel with a pleated filter containing 50 g of potassium carbonate (add carefully). It must be filtered through carbonate slowly enough that the solution no longer reacts acidically (otherwise add carbonate). The carbonate is first rinsed with the methylene chloride for the extraction.

6. In this, the solution is shaken out four times with 75 ml of dichloromethane each time.

7. The combined organic phases are dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in portions in a 250 ml flask on a rotary evaporator. The resulting yellow-orange oil is taken up in a mixture of 20 ml of diethyl ether and 20 ml of dichloromethane.

8. Dried hydrogen chloride gas is introduced into this solution. The apparatus for HCl generation consists of a multi-necked round-bottom flask with a stirrer, which is charged with sodium chloride and sulfuric acid (from a dropping funnel). To dry it, the gas is again passed through a washing bottle with a sodium chloride and sulfuric acid. The introduction into the alkaloid solution takes place with a Pasteur pipette. Empty safety washing bottles are installed in mirror image between all vessels so that no mixing can occur even if solutions are accidentally sucked back (see figure below). The excess gas is fed into a wash bottle with 10% NaOH solution (vent!).

[G.Patton note: You, probably, can substitute these 8-9 steps with addition of HCl conc. solution until precipitate stop forming. After, neutralize solution by NaOH aq solution to pH 7. Evaporate water under vacuum with minimum heating to get crystals.]
9. After about 5 minutes, an off-white precipitate of alkaloid hydrochlorides forms. The supply of hydrogen chloride is stopped, and all hose connections are disconnected from to prevent the liquids from being sucked back.

10. The alkaloid mixture is filtered off using a Büchner funnel.

11. About 30 ml of acetone are added to a 250 ml beaker and the mixture is heated on a water bath while adding methanol (about 10 ml) in portions until residue has completely dissolved.

12. A spatula tip of activated charcoal is added, boiled and the hot solution filtered. Just enough acetone is added to the still hot filtrate until the crystals begin to precipitate.

13. The mother liquor is carefully pipetted off the product, which precipitates on cooling (at least 6 hours); the crystals are washed with a little acetone and air dried.

If there is still no TLC-uniform product, the product is dissolved in 15 times the amount of methanol, treated with 100 times the amount of acetone and recrystallized at about 4 °C overnight.


Second (simplified) extraction way to Ephedrine free base

Equipment and glassware:

  • Pyrex pots ~750 mL x2;
  • Heating plate (or stove);
  • Filter with filter paper;
  • Sponge cake pan, 2.5 cm deep.

Reagents:

  • Ephedra sinica Stapf;
  • Ethyl alcohol (EtOH) ~2.25 L;
  • 750 mL Naphtha.
1st step:
a) Fine powder placed in a four quart Pyrex pot, about 750 mL of ethyl alcohol (EtOH) to cover the powder. For this process, use Ever Clear from local spirit hut. The pot and alcohol to be warmed at ~32 °C (don’t bring to boil as it will destroy the Ephedrine). After allowing to steep for 10 minutes, remove the pot from the stove.

b) After 15 minutes filter the mush through a #15 gold filter with a coffee filter inside the gold filter (you can use a laboratory glass funnel or another filter sieve) then set the mush aside.

c) The filtered solution is poured into a 2.5 cm deep sponge cake pan covered with cheese cloth and allow to dry. Allow the solution to dry for 12 hours, leaving only a fine white powder (which shows to be 70% Ephedrine and 30% misc, mostly oils that the alcohol couldn’t break down).

2nd step:
a)
Same as before, placed it in a four quart Pyrex pot. To the pot add 750 mL Naphtha, shake it vigorously 5-10 min and let it soak for three days.

b) Filter the mush the same way as above. Set the Naphtha solution aside for the second batch. Allow the mush to dry for three days.

c) Transfer the mush to a fresh Pyrex and cover with 750 mL ethyl alcohol, shake it vigorously 5-10 min and allow soaking for two days. Filter the mush, as you already know how to mark the solution “A” so that you can recognize it later.

d) Then place mush back in Pyrex and cover with another 750 mL ethanole this time, shake it vigorously 5-10 min and allow soaking for one day filter as you know how and then trash.

e) Now combine the second solution with the first into a 2.5 cm sponge cake pan to dry. Dry it for one day, leaving behind fine white powder.

Result 99% (not approved) Ephedrine free base, so total of Ephedrine extracted from 453 g of Ma Huang is 96 grams.
G.PattonI used 15 grams of powder, each gram needs 1.656 ml, so 15 grams is 24.84 ml, but pouring ethanol and naphtha into the powder turned into mud. Excuse me, Great God, how can I filter it? There is no liquid at all, it's all mud.
 

G.Patton

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I used 15 grams of powder, each gram needs 1.656 ml, so 15 grams is 24.84 ml, but pouring ethanol and naphtha into the powder turned into mud. Excuse me, Great God, how can I filter it? There is no liquid at all, it's all mud.
xiaofenadd more solvent, what is a problem?
 
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xiaofen

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Introduction

View attachment 3498 Ephedrine was found in the Chinese "Ma-huang" or Ephedra sinica Stapf plant, made from various species of ephedra, by Nagai in 1887. It has two chiral centers so that four configurationally isomeric ephedrines exist. The two naturally occurring ephedrines differ in the configuration of the secondary alcohol group.

There are two methods of Ephedrine extraction. First one was taken from German patent and allow getting Ephedrine hydrochloride with high purity grade. This method is suitable for laboratory manufacturing more than for kitchen home lab. Second one is simple extraction method with ethanol and naphtha, which give quite dirty free base of ephedrine. Nevertheless, simple method may be carried out at home garage and product may be purified with recrystallization as in first method.

Equipment and glassware:
  • 1000 mL x2; 250 ml x2 Beakers
  • 100 mL x5; Erlenmeyer flasks;
  • Glass rod;
  • Glass column (d = 2.5 cm or wider, l = 70 cm);
  • Cotton ball;
  • 500 mL round bottom flask;
  • Rotary evaporator;
  • 500 ml Separating funnel;
  • Conventional funnel;
  • Filter paper;
  • Hydrogen chloride gas production apparatus;
  • Büchner funnel and flask;
  • Water-jet aspirator;
  • Laboratory scale (0.1 — 100 g is suitable);
  • Spatula.
Reagents:
  • Ephedra sinica Stapf 100 g; View attachment 3499
  • Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) 50 g;
  • Distilled water, 150 mL;
  • Dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) ~1500 mL;
  • Diethyl ether 50 mL;
  • Hydrochloric acid 150 mL (HCl 0.5 N);
  • Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) 50 g;
  • Sodium hydroxide aq. solution (NaOH 1 N) ~100 mL;
  • Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) or magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) ~100 g;
  • Acetone 30 mL;
  • Methanol (MeOH) ~10 mL;
  • Activated charcoal (optional) ~1 g;
View attachment 3496

Soluble in H2O 47.62 g/L (25 ºC), alcohol, ether, chloroform, and oils;
Boiling Point: 255 °C at 760 mm Hg (free base);
Melting Point freebase: 37-39 ̊C;
Melting point HCI salt: 187-188 ̊C;
Molecular Weight: 165.236 g/mole;
Density: 1.124 g/cm3 (20 °C);
CAS Number: 299-42-3 (free base) and 50-98-6 (hydrochloride salt).


L-ephedrine hydrochloride from ephedra herb [50-98-6] C10H15NO HCl

Determination of content (optional):
5 g of ground ephedra herb are mixed with 2 g of sodium carbonate and 7 mL of water and left to stand at room temperature for 3 hours. The mixture is treated three times with 50 ml of dichloromethane and stirred for at least 2 hours each time. The extract is pipetted off in each case. The organic phase is evaporated under vacuum (at 40 °C to 1 ml). After adding 20 mL of diethyl ether, it is extracted four times with 20 mL of 0.5 N hydrochloric acid, each time.

The combined hydrochloric acid phases are washed twice with 20 ml of ether, each time. After neutralization with 1 N sodium hydroxide solution (pH 7.5-8), it is extracted three times with 40 ml of dichloromethane and concentrated. The residue is taken up in 10 ml of water, and 3 ml of 0.1 N sodium hydroxide solution and 10 ml of 0.1 N I2/KI solution are added. The solution is stirred with gentle warming for 30 minutes. It is then carefully acidified with diluted HCl and a few drops of starch solution are added. The excess iodine is titrated with 0.1 N sodium thiosulphate solution until the color changes from blue to colorless.

Extraction procedure:
1.
100 g of powdered ephedra herb is added to a solution of 50 g of sodium carbonate in 150 ml of water in a 1000 ml beaker, mixed with a glass rod and left to stand for at least 2 hours.

2. A glass column (d = 2.5 cm or wider, l = 70 cm) is filled one third with dichloromethane and then filled in portions with the drug pulp. The drug should settle in the column without any air bubbles. The drug is covered with a glass cotton ball. (Please note: do not press the column filling too tightly).

3. It is percolated by continuously adding 1000 ml of dichloromethane (about two drops/sec). The percolate is concentrated portionwise in a 500 mL round bottom flask under vacuum to a volume of 5 mL.

4. 30 mL of ether are added to the extract, and it is shaken out three times with 50 ml of 0.5 N hydrochloric acid each time.

5. The combined hydrochloric acid extracts are filtered into a 500 ml separating funnel through a funnel with a pleated filter containing 50 g of potassium carbonate (add carefully). It must be filtered through carbonate slowly enough that the solution no longer reacts acidically (otherwise add carbonate). The carbonate is first rinsed with the methylene chloride for the extraction.

6. In this, the solution is shaken out four times with 75 ml of dichloromethane each time.

7. The combined organic phases are dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in portions in a 250 ml flask on a rotary evaporator. The resulting yellow-orange oil is taken up in a mixture of 20 ml of diethyl ether and 20 ml of dichloromethane.

8. Dried hydrogen chloride gas is introduced into this solution. The apparatus for HCl generation consists of a multi-necked round-bottom flask with a stirrer, which is charged with sodium chloride and sulfuric acid (from a dropping funnel). To dry it, the gas is again passed through a washing bottle with a sodium chloride and sulfuric acid. The introduction into the alkaloid solution takes place with a Pasteur pipette. Empty safety washing bottles are installed in mirror image between all vessels so that no mixing can occur even if solutions are accidentally sucked back (see figure below). The excess gas is fed into a wash bottle with 10% NaOH solution (vent!).

[G.Patton note: You, probably, can substitute these 8-9 steps with addition of HCl conc. solution until precipitate stop forming. After, neutralize solution by NaOH aq solution to pH 7. Evaporate water under vacuum with minimum heating to get crystals.]
9. After about 5 minutes, an off-white precipitate of alkaloid hydrochlorides forms. The supply of hydrogen chloride is stopped, and all hose connections are disconnected from to prevent the liquids from being sucked back.

10. The alkaloid mixture is filtered off using a Büchner funnel.

11. About 30 ml of acetone are added to a 250 ml beaker and the mixture is heated on a water bath while adding methanol (about 10 ml) in portions until residue has completely dissolved.

12. A spatula tip of activated charcoal is added, boiled and the hot solution filtered. Just enough acetone is added to the still hot filtrate until the crystals begin to precipitate.

13. The mother liquor is carefully pipetted off the product, which precipitates on cooling (at least 6 hours); the crystals are washed with a little acetone and air dried.

If there is still no TLC-uniform product, the product is dissolved in 15 times the amount of methanol, treated with 100 times the amount of acetone and recrystallized at about 4 °C overnight.


Second (simplified) extraction way to Ephedrine free base

Equipment and glassware:

  • Pyrex pots ~750 mL x2;
  • Heating plate (or stove);
  • Filter with filter paper;
  • Sponge cake pan, 2.5 cm deep.

Reagents:

  • Ephedra sinica Stapf;
  • Ethyl alcohol (EtOH) ~2.25 L;
  • 750 mL Naphtha.
1st step:
a) Fine powder placed in a four quart Pyrex pot, about 750 mL of ethyl alcohol (EtOH) to cover the powder. For this process, use Ever Clear from local spirit hut. The pot and alcohol to be warmed at ~32 °C (don’t bring to boil as it will destroy the Ephedrine). After allowing to steep for 10 minutes, remove the pot from the stove.

b) After 15 minutes filter the mush through a #15 gold filter with a coffee filter inside the gold filter (you can use a laboratory glass funnel or another filter sieve) then set the mush aside.

c) The filtered solution is poured into a 2.5 cm deep sponge cake pan covered with cheese cloth and allow to dry. Allow the solution to dry for 12 hours, leaving only a fine white powder (which shows to be 70% Ephedrine and 30% misc, mostly oils that the alcohol couldn’t break down).

2nd step:
a)
Same as before, placed it in a four quart Pyrex pot. To the pot add 750 mL Naphtha, shake it vigorously 5-10 min and let it soak for three days.

b) Filter the mush the same way as above. Set the Naphtha solution aside for the second batch. Allow the mush to dry for three days.

c) Transfer the mush to a fresh Pyrex and cover with 750 mL ethyl alcohol, shake it vigorously 5-10 min and allow soaking for two days. Filter the mush, as you already know how to mark the solution “A” so that you can recognize it later.

d) Then place mush back in Pyrex and cover with another 750 mL ethanole this time, shake it vigorously 5-10 min and allow soaking for one day filter as you know how and then trash.

e) Now combine the second solution with the first into a 2.5 cm sponge cake pan to dry. Dry it for one day, leaving behind fine white powder.

Result 99% (not approved) Ephedrine free base, so total of Ephedrine extracted from 453 g of Ma Huang is 96 grams.
G.PattonThere is a simplified method, which has been tested. Where does the powder obtained after heating with ethanol for 10 minutes in the first step go? Is it reserved for the second part? But in the second part, there is ethanol to soak for 3 days and naphtha to soak for 2 days, and then the two filtered liquids are fused. After fusion, a black substance with a lot of oil is obtained. I don't see powdery white.
 

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There is a simplified method, which has been tested. Where does the powder obtained after heating with ethanol for 10 minutes in the first step go? Is it reserved for the second part? But in the second part, there is ethanol to soak for 3 days and naphtha to soak for 2 days, and then the two filtered liquids are fused. After fusion, a black substance with a lot of oil is obtained. I don't see powdery white.
xiaofenMoreover, grinding grass into powder and soaking it in ethanol or naphtha is a dark green liquid. I filtered it with suction filtration for 4-5 times and the color is still dark green.
 

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There is a simplified method, which has been tested. Where does the powder obtained after heating with ethanol for 10 minutes in the first step go? Is it reserved for the second part? But in the second part, there is ethanol to soak for 3 days and naphtha to soak for 2 days, and then the two filtered liquids are fused. After fusion, a black substance with a lot of oil is obtained. I don't see powdery white.
xiaofenI don't understand about what are you talking about. Can you write more clearly your request please?
 
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xiaofen

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I don't understand about what are you talking about. Can you write more clearly your request please?
G.PattonIt was extracted step by step, but the final product was not white powder. I used a simplified version, and every step was done according to the above. After soaking in the solvent, the two solvents were combined, and after drying, a black one was obtained, no. It is a dark green liquid.
 

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G.Patton

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It was extracted step by step, but the final product was not white powder. I used a simplified version, and every step was done according to the above. After soaking in the solvent, the two solvents were combined, and after drying, a black one was obtained, no. It is a dark green liquid.
xiaofenIn theory, your ephedrine is there. You just need to extract it. There are also other substances. You need to completely evaporate liquid and crystallize ephedrine. Probably, flash chromatography is necessary here.
 

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In theory, your ephedrine is there. You just need to extract it. There are also other substances. You need to completely evaporate liquid and crystallize ephedrine. Probably, flash chromatography is necessary here.
G.PattonAccording to what you said above, I put it on the cake plate, but I haven't seen any white powder yet after evaporating the liquid. Is it a mistake in my operation? But I made it according to your above method.
 

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Introduction

View attachment 3498 Ephedrine was found in the Chinese "Ma-huang" or Ephedra sinica Stapf plant, made from various species of ephedra, by Nagai in 1887. It has two chiral centers so that four configurationally isomeric ephedrines exist. The two naturally occurring ephedrines differ in the configuration of the secondary alcohol group.

There are two methods of Ephedrine extraction. First one was taken from German patent and allow getting Ephedrine hydrochloride with high purity grade. This method is suitable for laboratory manufacturing more than for kitchen home lab. Second one is simple extraction method with ethanol and naphtha, which give quite dirty free base of ephedrine. Nevertheless, simple method may be carried out at home garage and product may be purified with recrystallization as in first method.

Equipment and glassware:
  • 1000 mL x2; 250 ml x2 Beakers
  • 100 mL x5; Erlenmeyer flasks;
  • Glass rod;
  • Glass column (d = 2.5 cm or wider, l = 70 cm);
  • Cotton ball;
  • 500 mL round bottom flask;
  • Rotary evaporator;
  • 500 ml Separating funnel;
  • Conventional funnel;
  • Filter paper;
  • Hydrogen chloride gas production apparatus;
  • Büchner funnel and flask;
  • Water-jet aspirator;
  • Laboratory scale (0.1 — 100 g is suitable);
  • Spatula.
Reagents:
  • Ephedra sinica Stapf 100 g; View attachment 3499
  • Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) 50 g;
  • Distilled water, 150 mL;
  • Dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) ~1500 mL;
  • Diethyl ether 50 mL;
  • Hydrochloric acid 150 mL (HCl 0.5 N);
  • Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) 50 g;
  • Sodium hydroxide aq. solution (NaOH 1 N) ~100 mL;
  • Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) or magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) ~100 g;
  • Acetone 30 mL;
  • Methanol (MeOH) ~10 mL;
  • Activated charcoal (optional) ~1 g;
View attachment 3496

Soluble in H2O 47.62 g/L (25 ºC), alcohol, ether, chloroform, and oils;
Boiling Point: 255 °C at 760 mm Hg (free base);
Melting Point freebase: 37-39 ̊C;
Melting point HCI salt: 187-188 ̊C;
Molecular Weight: 165.236 g/mole;
Density: 1.124 g/cm3 (20 °C);
CAS Number: 299-42-3 (free base) and 50-98-6 (hydrochloride salt).


L-ephedrine hydrochloride from ephedra herb [50-98-6] C10H15NO HCl

Determination of content (optional):
5 g of ground ephedra herb are mixed with 2 g of sodium carbonate and 7 mL of water and left to stand at room temperature for 3 hours. The mixture is treated three times with 50 ml of dichloromethane and stirred for at least 2 hours each time. The extract is pipetted off in each case. The organic phase is evaporated under vacuum (at 40 °C to 1 ml). After adding 20 mL of diethyl ether, it is extracted four times with 20 mL of 0.5 N hydrochloric acid, each time.

The combined hydrochloric acid phases are washed twice with 20 ml of ether, each time. After neutralization with 1 N sodium hydroxide solution (pH 7.5-8), it is extracted three times with 40 ml of dichloromethane and concentrated. The residue is taken up in 10 ml of water, and 3 ml of 0.1 N sodium hydroxide solution and 10 ml of 0.1 N I2/KI solution are added. The solution is stirred with gentle warming for 30 minutes. It is then carefully acidified with diluted HCl and a few drops of starch solution are added. The excess iodine is titrated with 0.1 N sodium thiosulphate solution until the color changes from blue to colorless.

Extraction procedure:
1.
100 g of powdered ephedra herb is added to a solution of 50 g of sodium carbonate in 150 ml of water in a 1000 ml beaker, mixed with a glass rod and left to stand for at least 2 hours.

2. A glass column (d = 2.5 cm or wider, l = 70 cm) is filled one third with dichloromethane and then filled in portions with the drug pulp. The drug should settle in the column without any air bubbles. The drug is covered with a glass cotton ball. (Please note: do not press the column filling too tightly).

3. It is percolated by continuously adding 1000 ml of dichloromethane (about two drops/sec). The percolate is concentrated portionwise in a 500 mL round bottom flask under vacuum to a volume of 5 mL.

4. 30 mL of ether are added to the extract, and it is shaken out three times with 50 ml of 0.5 N hydrochloric acid each time.

5. The combined hydrochloric acid extracts are filtered into a 500 ml separating funnel through a funnel with a pleated filter containing 50 g of potassium carbonate (add carefully). It must be filtered through carbonate slowly enough that the solution no longer reacts acidically (otherwise add carbonate). The carbonate is first rinsed with the methylene chloride for the extraction.

6. In this, the solution is shaken out four times with 75 ml of dichloromethane each time.

7. The combined organic phases are dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in portions in a 250 ml flask on a rotary evaporator. The resulting yellow-orange oil is taken up in a mixture of 20 ml of diethyl ether and 20 ml of dichloromethane.

8. Dried hydrogen chloride gas is introduced into this solution. The apparatus for HCl generation consists of a multi-necked round-bottom flask with a stirrer, which is charged with sodium chloride and sulfuric acid (from a dropping funnel). To dry it, the gas is again passed through a washing bottle with a sodium chloride and sulfuric acid. The introduction into the alkaloid solution takes place with a Pasteur pipette. Empty safety washing bottles are installed in mirror image between all vessels so that no mixing can occur even if solutions are accidentally sucked back (see figure below). The excess gas is fed into a wash bottle with 10% NaOH solution (vent!).

[G.Patton note: You, probably, can substitute these 8-9 steps with addition of HCl conc. solution until precipitate stop forming. After, neutralize solution by NaOH aq solution to pH 7. Evaporate water under vacuum with minimum heating to get crystals.]
9. After about 5 minutes, an off-white precipitate of alkaloid hydrochlorides forms. The supply of hydrogen chloride is stopped, and all hose connections are disconnected from to prevent the liquids from being sucked back.

10. The alkaloid mixture is filtered off using a Büchner funnel.

11. About 30 ml of acetone are added to a 250 ml beaker and the mixture is heated on a water bath while adding methanol (about 10 ml) in portions until residue has completely dissolved.

12. A spatula tip of activated charcoal is added, boiled and the hot solution filtered. Just enough acetone is added to the still hot filtrate until the crystals begin to precipitate.

13. The mother liquor is carefully pipetted off the product, which precipitates on cooling (at least 6 hours); the crystals are washed with a little acetone and air dried.

If there is still no TLC-uniform product, the product is dissolved in 15 times the amount of methanol, treated with 100 times the amount of acetone and recrystallized at about 4 °C overnight.


Second (simplified) extraction way to Ephedrine free base

Equipment and glassware:

  • Pyrex pots ~750 mL x2;
  • Heating plate (or stove);
  • Filter with filter paper;
  • Sponge cake pan, 2.5 cm deep.

Reagents:

  • Ephedra sinica Stapf;
  • Ethyl alcohol (EtOH) ~2.25 L;
  • 750 mL Naphtha.
1st step:
a) Fine powder placed in a four quart Pyrex pot, about 750 mL of ethyl alcohol (EtOH) to cover the powder. For this process, use Ever Clear from local spirit hut. The pot and alcohol to be warmed at ~32 °C (don’t bring to boil as it will destroy the Ephedrine). After allowing to steep for 10 minutes, remove the pot from the stove.

b) After 15 minutes filter the mush through a #15 gold filter with a coffee filter inside the gold filter (you can use a laboratory glass funnel or another filter sieve) then set the mush aside.

c) The filtered solution is poured into a 2.5 cm deep sponge cake pan covered with cheese cloth and allow to dry. Allow the solution to dry for 12 hours, leaving only a fine white powder (which shows to be 70% Ephedrine and 30% misc, mostly oils that the alcohol couldn’t break down).

2nd step:
a)
Same as before, placed it in a four quart Pyrex pot. To the pot add 750 mL Naphtha, shake it vigorously 5-10 min and let it soak for three days.

b) Filter the mush the same way as above. Set the Naphtha solution aside for the second batch. Allow the mush to dry for three days.

c) Transfer the mush to a fresh Pyrex and cover with 750 mL ethyl alcohol, shake it vigorously 5-10 min and allow soaking for two days. Filter the mush, as you already know how to mark the solution “A” so that you can recognize it later.

d) Then place mush back in Pyrex and cover with another 750 mL ethanole this time, shake it vigorously 5-10 min and allow soaking for one day filter as you know how and then trash.

e) Now combine the second solution with the first into a 2.5 cm sponge cake pan to dry. Dry it for one day, leaving behind fine white powder.

Result 99% (not approved) Ephedrine free base, so total of Ephedrine extracted from 453 g of Ma Huang is 96 grams.
G.Pattoncan I use this method?

1000 grams (1 kg) of ephedra powder

5000 ml of water

3000 ml of gasoline

100 grams of table salt

20 grams of caustic soda

100 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid

1000 ml of xylene

method:

Soaking the powder in a mixture of water, gasoline, salt and soda for 24 hours

Strain the solution and transfer to the tank

Add sulfuric acid, salt and xylene

Heating at a temperature below 50 degrees Celsius for 2-3 hours

Separation and drying of sediment containing ephedrine
 

xiaofen

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can I use this method?

1000 grams (1 kg) of ephedra powder

5000 ml of water

3000 ml of gasoline

100 grams of table salt

20 grams of caustic soda

100 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid

1000 ml of xylene

method:

Soaking the powder in a mixture of water, gasoline, salt and soda for 24 hours

Strain the solution and transfer to the tank

Add sulfuric acid, salt and xylene

Heating at a temperature below 50 degrees Celsius for 2-3 hours

Separation and drying of sediment containing ephedrine
kingofnet13This method looks good, but concentrated sulfuric acid is difficult to obtain in my country.
 

K.1

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can I use this method?

1000 grams (1 kg) of ephedra powder

5000 ml of water

3000 ml of gasoline

100 grams of table salt

20 grams of caustic soda

100 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid

1000 ml of xylene

method:

Soaking the powder in a mixture of water, gasoline, salt and soda for 24 hours

Strain the solution and transfer to the tank

Add sulfuric acid, salt and xylene

Heating at a temperature below 50 degrees Celsius for 2-3 hours

Separation and drying of sediment containing ephedrine
kingofnet13Have you ever tried this method? What was the yield like?
 

bigbadbear

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Have you ever tried this method? What was the yield like?
K.1I learned this method from one of my friends from Afghanistan. He said that they extract ephedrine with this method, but I haven't tried it yet because I'm looking for sulfuric acid.
 

googie

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In coming months I will attempt an extraction and post results.
 

nobody66

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In coming months I will attempt an extraction and post results.
googieHello brother, have you already tried it? What is the result? Have you succeeded in this method?
 
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