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Psilocybin and psilocin extraction from mushrooms

G.Patton

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Introduction

A simple aqueous extraction method for the isolation and identification of psilocin from Psilocybe Cubensis mushrooms is reported. This method employs a dephosphorylation of the phosphate ester to psilocin, which facilitates a greater product yield and simplifies identification. Psilocin extracted by this method is sufficiently concentrated and free of co-contaminants to allow identification by infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

Also represented Psilocybin extraction using alcohol, symplyfied procedure for Psilocybin extraction. Psilocybin turns to psilocin in human body.
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Psilocybin and psilocin

The tryptamines are one of four categories of hallucinogenic indoles in more than 20 classes of indole compounds comprising approximately 600 alkaloids. Considerable research has been conducted with psilocin and psilocybin since their isolation by Hofmann et. al. Several extraction techniques have been used to isolate psilocin and psilocybin from more than two dozen species of mushrooms in four genera (Conocybe. Panaeolus, Psilocybe, Stropharia). The techniques that use methanol co-extract other compounds such as urea, ergosterol, ergosteral peroxide, α,α-trehalose, baeocystin, and norbaeocystin. At present, a useful aqueous extraction procedure has not been reported for psilocin and psilocybin.

The dephosphorylation of psilocybin to psilocin in vivo has been well documented and is thought to account for most or all of its central nervous system activity. Conversion of psilocybin to psilocin is also necessary for aqueous extraction with organic solvents because of the very low lipid solubility of psilocybin.

Concentration and detectability of psilocin and psilocybin are dependent on several variables, including:
  • The absence of glucose, which will prevent the production of psilocybin.
  • Low levels of ammonium succinate, which will give poor yields of psilocybin.
  • The growing medium, which requires a pH of less than 7.
  • Timing: maximum production of psilocybin occurs on the seventh day after germination, while maximum production of the mycelium is reached by the ninth day.
  • Temperature: complete loss of psilocin and psilocybin will occur in harvested mushrooms left at room temperature for an extended period of time.
  • Oxidation: psilocin will oxidize to a blue product (possibly accounting for the bluing color in the four genera containing psilocin and psilocybin).
Because of the increasing popularity of these mushrooms and kits available from drug oriented publications for growing mushrooms containing psilocin and psilocybin in cow manure, a simple aqueous extraction procedure has been developed that extracts reasonably pure psilocin from mature mushrooms.

Equipment and glassware:

  • Mortar and pestle;
  • 250 mL Beaker;
  • Water bath with heater;
  • Thermometer;
  • Funnel;
  • Coffee filters.

Reagents:

  • 2 to 10g Dried mushrooms;
  • 100 mL Dilute acetic acid (vinegar, AcOH 5-9% aq.);
  • ~30 mL Glacial acetic acid (AcOH);
  • ~ 50 g Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH);
  • ~ 300 mL Distilled water (H2O);
  • 100 mL Diethyl ether (Et2O);
  • ~30 g Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) anhydrous.

Experimental

A representative sample of 2 to 10 g of dried mushrooms is ground to a fine powder by mortar and pestle. The powder is mixed with 100 mL of dilute acetic acid in a 250 mL beaker. The pH is readjusted to pH 4 with glacial acetic acid. After standing 1 h, the beaker is placed in a boiling water bath for 8 to 10 min, or until the internal temperature of the acid mixture reaches 70 °C. The beaker is removed and cooled to room temperature under running water. The acid mixture is separated from the mushroom powder by suction (or simple) filtration using glass wool. The filtrate is brought to pH 8 with concentrated ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and quickly extracted with two 50 mL portions of diethyl ether. Gentle mixing instead of shaking should be used to prevent an emulsion. The ether is dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and evaporated with no applied heat.

Crude psilocin will appear as a greenish residue.
Recrystallization from chloroform/heptane (1:3) yields white crystals.

Results and Discussion

This method permits rapid isolation of psilocin from hallucinogenic mushrooms by co-extraction of both psilocin and psilocybin. Dilute acetic acid is an excellent solvent for this purpose because both compounds are very soluble in acetic acid11 and very little of other interfering substances are extracted, It is most likely some other compounds are co-extracted but are removed from psilocin in the ether extraction from the aqueous base. Psilocybin is completely dephosphorytated to psilocin by heating the acid extract. After addition of the base, extraction into ether should be performed promptly because of decomposition of psilocin at a greater pH than 7. The extraction and dephosporylation steps produce reasonably pure psilocin from a small amount of mushroom material.

Psilocybin extraction using alcohol

Equipment and reagents:
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  • 750mL of alcohol (50% ethanole is okay, but the higher the better)
  • Gelatin mix, flavor to taste
  • Coffee filters (2 per extraction)
  • 2 Pots (1 for the double boil and one for the gelatin)
  • Funnel(s)
  • Cups for Shots
  • 28 g of Cracker Dry Mushrooms (or 1g per shot glass, I used 12.3g of APE + 16g of pins & aborts)
  • 2 Quart/Pint Jars
  • Measuring Cup
  • Grinding Device (Mortar + Pestle or Blender, I've found the blender is the easiest)
Preparation:
1. Grind up your Mushrooms.
A blender takes about 2 minutes & a Mortar+Pestle takes around 30 minutes
Allow your mushroom "dust" to settle for a few minutes if using a blender

2. Pour your Mushroom Powder into your Quart/Pint Jar (I used Quarts)
I used 28 g, which equaled 200 mL chopped
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3. Pour your Choice of Alcohol over the dried & chopped mushrooms, you want enough alcohol to cover the powder plus some.
You want to stir the mushrooms in a bit w/ the alcohol with a spoon or knife.
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4. Fill your pot with some water. You want enough to cover all of the alcohol in the jar.

Procedure

1. Place the jar in the water on the stove on high.
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2. Watch the jar closely to come close to a boil. I gently stirred the water around the jar & the mixture in the jar to ensure an even distribution of heat. 15 minutes into the boil:
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The mixture will come to a boil pretty quickly. Therefore, you're going to adjust the heat on the stove from High to Low to Medium-Low. The last adjustment just depends on the stove. I used a long stem thermometer to monitor temperatures.

3. Boil the mixture for 1 hour.

4. Dump the Mixture out of the Jar & into 2 coffee filters; I used a funnel for this as well. Also, you want to wear some kind of protective Hand wear, as the jar is extremely HOT.
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5. Gently Press & Squeeze the mixture, forcing your Psilocybin rich liquid through the filter.
If you're using your bare hands, you may want to cover them with rubber gloves, as I started tripping a bit last time I did this.
After 1 full extraction:
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Press+Squeezed Mushrooms in quart jar:

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6. Repeat all of the above steps One more time to get a Full Extraction.
In Filter Again:
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Total Liquid:
237 mL (8 oz).
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You can add more alcohol if it comes out less than you'd like, or Double Boil off a bit more to reduce it.

7. Leave the liquid in the jar.

Preparation of Gelatin

Proportions:
a. I had 237 mL (8 oz) of psilocybin liquid. Therefore, I wanted a nice mixture of hot & Cold water.
b. Measure out 237 mL (8 oz) of water and put in the freezer for 15 minutes.
c. I used 355 mL (12 oz) hot water + 89 mL (3 oz) dry gelatin mixture. I did NOT wait for the water to come to a boil, but just for it to be hot enough to dissolve the powder.

Mixing of Liquids
1. Pour the Hot water into the quart jar with your alcohol+.
2. Pour the cold water into the quart jar.
3. Mix a bit
4. Pour into cups.


Alternative Manner of Mixing for EXACT Dosage per shot
1. Reduce the mushroom mixture to an exact amount of liquid.
2. Put your mushroom liquid into a syringe or graduated cylinder for precise measurements.
3. Mix your hot gelatin water + the cold water and evenly pour into each glass.
4. Inject/pour your mushroom liquid into each cup evenly.
Now you have X amount of Jello shots with an exact dosage.


Fresh Poured Shots:
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Chill for 24 Hours & then enjoy whenever:
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I'd recommend starting with 1 shot and seeing how that doses. You should have a quick onset (20 minutes) and more intense trip for less time (approximately 3 hours).
 
Last edited:

ASheSChem

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do you know if this TEK work with amanita too? (for obtaining Muscimol and Ibotenic acid)
 

egomaniacle

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How concentrated can you make the final alcohol solution? And out of the 1 ounce of mushrooms, how much actual psilocybin is transferred to the liquid?

Do you think I'd be able to mix the final alcohol solution with MCT oil so I can make edibles with it?
 

chemistrydude

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You don't need so much reagents only one, you need psilocybe cubensis powder and ethyl alcohol and your good to go, for example 20 grams of powder of psilocybe cubensis put in flask, now in beaker we're adding ethyl alcohol about 200ml of ethyl alcohol now place on heating plate until it will be hot, adding hot ethyl alcohol to flask, again put on heating plate, evaporate the ethyl alcohol by half and you can remove from heating place, now make 3 filtrations, first you need rag and pour liquid trougth rag now mushrooms will be in rag, now do filtration via cotton disk and then use coffee filter or filter paper to make small filtration, now put extracts in place where can be 25*C and after 48 hours you can place in freezer or in fridge, and after week remove extract, done 665mg of psilocybin crystals.
 

G.Patton

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Do you think I'd be able to mix the final alcohol solution with MCT oil so I can make edibles with it?
Do you mean Medium-Chain Triglycerides?
And out of the 1 ounce of mushrooms, how much actual psilocybin is transferred to the liquid?
Depends on mushrooms kind. I can't say exactly by reason that you can get wide range of yield from this procedure.
How concentrated can you make the final alcohol solution?
Until a crystals precipitation from the solution
 

G.Patton

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You don't need so much reagents only one, you need psilocybe cubensis powder and ethyl alcohol and your good to go, for example 20 grams of powder of psilocybe cubensis put in flask, now in beaker we're adding ethyl alcohol about 200ml of ethyl alcohol now place on heating plate until it will be hot, adding hot ethyl alcohol to flask, again put on heating plate, evaporate the ethyl alcohol by half and you can remove from heating place, now make 3 filtrations, first you need rag and pour liquid trougth rag now mushrooms will be in rag, now do filtration via cotton disk and then use coffee filter or filter paper to make small filtration, now put extracts in place where can be 25*C and after 48 hours you can place in freezer or in fridge, and after week remove extract, done 665mg of psilocybin crystals.
You described second method(y)
 

banister

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Glad curious kittens are keeping these rare gems alive. I noticed recently the usual channels are out or just will not offer it no more, leaving it to the darknet and they charge appropriately so but maybe way too much. Like four times what it used to cost.
Seems from now on with these particular goodies, it is almost best to make it yourself versus sourcing it. Unless you don't have the skill, time, and or place to do so, then maybe ordering from a reputable source is clutch.
Good luck. I would love to see a follow up on this thread.
 
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