Synthetic Cathinones: Comprehensive Guide to Synthesis

Synthetic Cathinones: Comprehensive Guide to Synthesis

Introduction

The chemical synthesis of cathinones is facile and usually follows a two-step process. Typically, the initial synthesis is of an α-bromoketone (from the prerequisite arylketone) followed by a nucleophilic substitution with an appropriate amine to give the corresponding freebase of the cathinone. Due to the instability of the free- base, the cathinones are conveniently isolated as their corresponding hydrochloride or hydrobromide salts. This method could be adapted for the synthesis of a wide range of cathinones as shown below.

Examples

Ephedrone (CAS: 5650-44-2, C10H13NOH, 2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpropan-1-one, methcathinone, MetCat) is a short-acting stimulant that produces effects similar to those from chewing the leaves of the Khat plant. The precursor is propiophenone CAS: 93-55-0.

Flephedrone (CAS: 7598-35-7, C10H13ClFNO, 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)propan-1-one, 4-fluoromethcathinone or 4-FMC) is a central nervous system stimulant belonging to the amphetamines and cathinones class. The precursor is 4'-fluoropropiophenone CAS: 456-03-1.

Mephedrone (CAS: 1189805-46-6, C11H15NO, 1-Propanone, 2-(methylamino)-1-(4-methylphenyl)-, 2-(Methylamino)-1-(4-methylphenyl)-1-propanone, 2-Methylamino-1-p-tolylpropane-1-one, 4MMC, Meow meow, meph). Euphoric, is widespread. Its effects have been compared to those of cocaine, methamphetamine and ecstasy. Precursor for 4-mmc synthesis is 4'-Methylpropiophenone (CAS: 5337-93-9).

Methedrone (CAS:530-54-1, C11H15NO2, para-methoxymethcathinone, 4-methoxymethcathinone, bk-PMMA, PMMC, methoxyphedrine, 4-MeOMC). A substance in the class of amphetamines and cathinones. Chemically, methedrone is closely related to para-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA), methylone and mephedrone. Precursor for methedrone synthesis is 4'-Methoxypropiophenone (CAS: 121-97-1).

Methylone (CAS:186028-79-5, C11H13NO3, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone, MDMC, βk-MDMA, M1). Methylone is a substituted cathinone analogue of MDMA and a 3,4-methylenedioxy analogue of methcathinone. Only the structural difference between methylone and MDMA is the substitution of 2 hydrogen atoms for 1 oxygen atom in the β-position of the phenethylamine nucleus, forming a ketone group. The effects may be superior to MDMA. Precursor for methylone synthesis is 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone (CAS: 28281-49-4).

α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (CAS: 14530-33-7, C15H21NO, α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, α-PVP, O-2387, β-keto-prolintane, prolintanone, or desmethylpyrovalerone) is a synthetic stimulant of the cathinone class. Precursor for α-PVP synthesis is valerophenone (CAS: 1009-14-9).

MDPV (CAS: 687603-66-3, C16H21NO3, 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone, methylenedioxypyrovalerone) acts as a powerful stimulant and causes effects similar to those of cocaine, methylphenidate and amphetamines. Causes irresistible craving for repeated taking. Typical doses range from 5-20 mg.

Conclusion

As you can see at the diagrams above, the syntheses of cathinones are relatively simple. A large scale production is quite easy to arrange, so that they come out cheap to produce.

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